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by Jim Trelease
• Chapter Eight—footnotes •
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These are the footnotes for a brief excerpt from Chapter 8 of
The Read-Aloud Handbook (Penguin, 2013, 7th edition).

Footnotes for CHAPTER EIGHT

(Television and Audio: Hurting or helping literacy?)

  1. Jim Trelease offers a free single- page brochure for parents at his Web site that tells the story of Ben Carson, along with the story of Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Leonard Pitts Jr. and his mother. Despite the ravages of American poverty, Mrs. Pitts did enough of the right things (as did Mrs. Carson) to raise a son who became one of the nation’s top newspaper columnists. The brochure highlights the efforts of these two parents and what other parents can learn from them. Titled “Two Families Every Parent Should Meet,” it is available at
  2. Kirsch et al., Reading for Change. See also “OECD Pisa 2003 Results: Young Finns Still at the OECD Top,” Finland’s Ministry of Education (2003),
  3. Hancock, “Why Are Finland’s Schools Successful?” See also “The Finland Phenomenon”; Anderson, “From Finland, a Story of Educational Success”; Alvarez, “Suutarila Journal: Educators Flocking to Finland”; Coughlan, “Education Key to Economic Survival.”
  4. Elley, How in the World Do Students Read?
  5. Susan B. Neuman and Patricia Koskinen, “Captioned Television as ‘Comprehensible Input’: Effects of Incidental Word Learning from Context for Language Minority Students,” Reading Research Quarterly 27, no. 1 (1992): 95–106; P. S. Koskinen, R. M. Wilson, C. J. Jensema, “Using closed-captioned Television in the Teaching of Reading to Deaf Students,” American Annals of the Deaf 131 (1986): 43–46; Patricia S. Koskinen, Robert M. Wilson, Linda B. Gambrell, and Susan B. Neuman, “Captioned Video and Vocabulary Learning: An Innovative Practice in Literacy Instruction,” Reading Teacher 47, no. 1 (1993) 36–43; Robert J. Rickelman, William A. Henk, and Kent Layton, “Closed-captioned Television: A Viable Technology for the Reading Teacher,” Reading Teacher 44, no. 8 (1996): 598–99.
  6. Anderson, “From Finland, a Story of Educational Success.”
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