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by Jim Trelease
• Chapter Seven—footnotes •
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These are the footnotes for a brief excerpt from Chapter 7 of
The Read-Aloud Handbook (Penguin, 2013, 7th edition).

Footnotes for CHAPTER SEVEN

(Digital Learning: Good news and bad)

  1. “Textbook Weight in California: Analysis and Recommendations,” California State Board of Education (2004),

  2. “Download Free Books from Gutenberg. org to Kindle on iPad,” YouTube video, 2:02, January 21, 2011, EWPN2x8.

  3. http://www.pbs.og/wgbh/americanexperience/films/ memphis/.

  4. Khan Academy is an extremely popular online free turtoring service consisting of more than 3,300 math, science, and history tutorials. See Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired, August 2011. See also Steve Kolowich, “The Problem Solvers,” Inside Higher Ed (blog), December 7, 2011,
    education-establishment; Erin Klein, “New iPad App Lets Any Teacher Be Like Sal Khan,” Edudemic (blog), December 21, 2011,; “Khan Academy: The Future of Education?” 60 Minutes video, 13:27, March 11, 2012,; and “Salman Khan of,” Charlie Rose video, 22:00, May 4, 2011 .

  5. Jim Sadwith, “Meeting Salinger,” interview by Dick Gordon, The Story, American Public Media, July 9, 2009,

  6. Kara Yorio, “Author Signings Are Going Digital,” The Record, June 3, 2012,

  7. Nate Stulman, “The Great Campus Goof-off Machine,” New York Times, op-ed, March 15, 1999.

  8. Winnie Hu, “Seeing No Progress, Some Schools Drop Laptops,” New York Times, May 4, 2007. See also Matt Richtel, “Wasting Time Is New Divide in Digital Era,” New York Times, May 30, 2012.

  9. Stephanie Reitz, “Many Schools Adding iPads, Trimming Textbooks,” Associated Press, Springfield Republican, September 4, 2011.

  10. Matt Richtel, “In Classroom of Future, Stagnant Scores,” New York Times, September 3, 2011.

  11. Mark Dynarski, Roberto Agodini et al., Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings from the First Student Cohort, Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (2007), ncee/pdf/20074006. pdf; Daniel Sheehan, Catherine Maloney, and Fanny Caranikas- Walker, “Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004–08),” Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research (2009),; What Works Clearinghouse, “Effectiveness of Reading and Mathematics Software Products: Findings for Two Student Cohorts,” U. S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences,; and Barbara Means, Yukie Toyama, Robert Murphy, Marianne Bakia, and Karla Jones, “Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies,” Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development (2010),

  12. Trip Gabriel and Matt Richtel, “Inflating the Software Report Card,” New York Times, October 9, 2011, p. 1.

  13. Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO), “Charter School Performance in Pennsylvania,” Stanford University (2011), See also John Tulenko, “Online Public Schools Gain Popularity, but Quality Questions Persist,” PBS Newshour video, 13:21, February 23, 2012, 02-23.html.

  14. Valerie Strauss, “Whose Children Have Been Left Behind? Framing the 2012 Ed Debate,” Answer Sheet (blog), Washington Post, January 3, 2012, quoting Dr. Diane Ravitch, education historian, speaking at a December 2011 national education conference in Washington,

  15. Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010), pp. 553–54.

  16. “U. S. Teen Mobile Report: Calling Yesterday, Texting Today, Using Apps Tomorrow,” NielsenWire (blog), October 14, 2010,
    -texting-today-using-apps-tomorrow/. See also Katie Hafner, “Texting May Be Taking a Toll,” New York Times, May 25, 2009; and Amanda Lenhart, “Teens, Cell Phones and Texting,” Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project, April 20, 2010,

  17. Rideout, Foehr, and Roberts, Generation M2.

  18. Eyal Ophir, Clifford Nass, and Anthony D. Wagner, “Cognitive Control in Media Multitaskers,” Depts. of Communication and Psychology and Neurosciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, July 20, 2009,

  19. Marcel Adam Just, Timothy A. Keller, and Jacquelyn Cynkar, “A Decrease in Brain Activation Associated with Driving When Listening to Someone Speak,” Brain Research 1205 (2008): 70–80,

  20. Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), pp. 122, 127- 30. If true, this doesn’t bode well for districts like Munster, Indiana, which converted all of its grade 5–12 curriculum to laptop-accessible versions; see Alan Schwarz, “Out with Textbooks, In with Laptops for an Indiana School District,” New York Times, October 19, 2011.

  21. Torkel Klingberg, The Overflowing Brain: Information Overload and the Limits of Working Memory, trans. Neil Betteridge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 72–75. See also Julie Bosman and Matt Richtel, “Finding Your Book Interrupted . . . By the Tablet You Read It On,” New York Times, March 5, 2012.

  22. Klingberg, The Overflowing Brain, pp. 129–31.

  23. Ibid., pp. 133–35.

  24. Martin Langeveld, “Print Is Still King: Only 3 Percent of Newspaper Reading Actually Happens Online,” Nieman Journalism Lab (blog), April 13, 2009,
    -actually-happens-online/. See also Ryan Chittum, “Print Newspapers Still Dominate Readers’ Attention,” The Audit (blog), Columbia Journalism Review, July 30, 2009,; and Hal Varian, “Newspaper Economics: Online and Offline,” Google Public Policy Blog, Google, March 9, 2010,

Chapter Seven — p.1 p.2

Footnotes by chapter — 1   2   3   5   7   8   9

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